Gezwungene und Freiwillige Die Trawniki-Männer und ihre Rolle im Holocaust
1. Aufl. 320 Seiten 230 x 155 mm
Trawniki, deTrawniki's, waren krijgsgevangen Oekraïners, Litouwers, Letten, Esten en anderen die door de omstandigheden gedwongen of vrijwillig in dienst van de SS in de vernietigingskampen in Oost-Polen werkten. De gevangenen uit het voormalige Oekraïense Sovjetleger, afkomstig uit de westelijke Oekraïne, werden eerst naar het trainingskamp van de SS in Trawniki bij het dorp Trawniki gestuurd. Vandaar de naam Trawniki's. Op elk van de Aktion Reinhard vernietigingskampen waren Trawniki gelegerd. John Demjanjuk was één van hen.
1. Aufl. 320 Seiten 230 x 155 mm
Met lit. opg.
Footage begins in the middle of Session 93 during cross-examination of the accused by Attorney General Gideon Hausner concerning the Trawniki labor camp. Eichmann is questioned about the date of transfer of the camp to the Economic-Administrative Head Office and whether in 1942 the Jews arriving at the camp were immediately sent for extermination. The opening segment is repeated after a break in the footage. Hausner presents a document to Eichmann and asks him if Odilo Globocnik was Oswald Pohl's representative in charge of implementing extermination in Poland. [Globocnik oversaw the camp in Trawniki but was also a major participant in the extermination of Polish Jewry in the killing centers of Belzec, Sobibor, and Majdanek.] Judge Landau asks Eichmann why Globocnik never received any orders from Pohl even though the accused maintains that everything that went on in the camps was Pohl's affair (00:10:17). Eichmann does not give a clear answer to Judge Landau's question. Hausner again asks Eichmann why the Economic-Administrative Head Office did not receive notification of the transports to and from Trawniki while Eichmann did receive notification (00:12:02). Eichmann replies that he does not know the answer, he did not take part in discussions regarding these transports, and he was only following orders. Hausner questions Eichmann about why he is able to recall transports to Auschwitz but not these other transports to the General Government (00:16:11). Eichmann testifies that it is because most of the transports went to Auschwitz. Hausner presents a document in which Eichmann instructs Roethke to send transports to Cholm on 23 March 1943 and asks Eichmann to confirm that these transports were going to Sobibor (00:17:27). The accused seems confused about the name Cholm and a long discussion ensues in which the parties attempt to clarify where Cholm is and the town's proper name (00:18:44 to 00:24:11), or whether it has been confused with Kulmhof, better known as Chelmno. Hausner reminds the accused that he received many reports on transports to Cholm and asks Eichmann if the people in these transports were sent for extermination. Hasuner presents a map of the General Government and explains that Cholm is near Sobibor in eastern Poland. Eichmann is asked if he was notified about the destination of the transports (00:29:44) and if he authorized them. Further questions concern whether those unable to work were immediately sent for extermination and if Eichmann was the one who decided if transports of Jews from the Reich would go to Minsk or to Riga (00:32:36). Eichmann testifies that it was Reinhard Heydrich who would have made these decisions. When Hausner asks whether he knew the horrible fate that awaited the deportees Eichmann says that he did not know at the time (00:34:15). Hausner questions Eichmann about his knowledge of the Einsatzgruppen's activities, including whether or not he received reports in 1942 on the murders being carried out by these units (00:35:55). During this section of footage there are shots of the audience. Hausner questions the accused about whether the Final Solution applied to all Jews or only the Jews in the Reich. Eichmann says that he expected the Jews of the Reich to be treated differently, that he thought they would be resettled. The Attorney General accuses Eichmann of deceiving the Jews by telling them they were being resettled when he knew full well that they were to be exterminated. Footage on this tape (#2144) from 00:37:06 to 00:42:15 duplicates footage found on tape #2140 (at 00:25:47 to 00:30:52). The footage on tape #2140 is less complete. Hausner questions Eichmann who was responsible for giving orders and who merely followed orders. Eichmann is asked if Ernst Kaltenbrunner and Heydrich carried out Hitler's orders and in this sense received orders (00:42:20). Hausner asks if the accused feels that the International Military Tribunal's verdict for Kaltenbrunner was just. There is discussion of the Fuehrer principle (Fuehrerprinzip) by which everyone below Hitler received and gave orders in a hierarchical chain of command. This topic continues to the end of the session. Judge Landau asks to adjourn and all rise as the judges exit the courtroom. Eichmann exits the booth. There are various shots of the courtroom, people exiting, and the attorneys' desks.
Contains trial transcripts of United States vs. Vladas Zajanckauskas, which took place in Boston, MA, in January 2005. During the trial, in which the Government was represented by the Office of Special Investigations (OSI), Mr. Zajanckauskas gave testimony regarding his wartime activites in the Trawniki Training Camp. Peter Black, senior historian at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, testifed for the government on the Trawniki camp, Mr. Zajanckauskas's service there, and the deployment of Mr. Zajanckauskas to Warsaw to liquidate the Warsaw ghetto. The Federal District Court in Massachusetts revoked Mr. Zajanckauskas' citizenship after finding him to have willfully misrepresented his wartime activities on his visa application by concealing his service in Warsaw during the uprising in 1943.
Pt. I (pp. 9-272) relates the story of the firm Schultz & Co. which employed some 8,000 workers from the Warsaw ghetto in the production of clothing for the Wehrmacht. They and their families were housed on the premises. The owner, Fritz Emil Schultz, and the manager, Rudolf Neumann, both Germans, made great efforts to save them from deportation. Pp. 31-149 reproduce a photo album prepared by the firm showing the Jews at work. In the early spring of 1943 the authorities ordered the firm with its work force to move voluntarily to the Trawniki labor camp. At first the Jews resisted; the transfer was finally carried out at the time of the Warsaw ghetto uprising. All the camp inmates were shot in "Aktion Erntefest" in November 1943. Pt. II (pp. 273-334) gives a general description of the formation of ghettos in Poland, the conflict between the need for workers and the extermination policy, and "Aktion Erntefest" in other camps. 1. Aufl. 337 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm.
This is a witness interview of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum's Perpetrators, Collaborators, and Witnesses: The Jeff and Toby Herr Testimony Initiative, a multi-year project to record the testimonies of non-Jewish witnesses to the Holocaust. The interview was directed and supervised by Nathan Beyrak. Michal Sobelman and Michal Cichy conducted the interview with Aleksandra Nizio in Trawniki, Poland on March 15, 1998, for the Polish Witnesses to the Holocaust Project.The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum received the tapes of the interview on November 13, 1998.
This is a witness interview of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum's Perpetrators, Collaborators, and Witnesses: The Jeff and Toby Herr Testimony Initiative, a multi-year project to record the testimonies of non-Jewish witnesses to the Holocaust. The interview was directed and supervised by Nathan Beyrak. Michal Sobelman and Michal Cichy conducted the interview with Wiktoria Sałęga in Trawniki, Poland on March 15, 1998, for the Polish Witnesses to the Holocaust Project.The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum received the tapes of the interview on November 13, 1998.
Met een hoofdstuk over Trawniki uit Schefflers Probleme der Holocaustforschung .
The Hertha Wolff Hellmann papers consist of biographical materials, photographic materials, a letter, and lyrics to “Das Ladenmädel” documenting Hertha Wolff’s family in Berlin, Hertha’s escape to Shanghai with her daughter Vera, her husband Georg Wolff’s deportation to Trawniki, Vera’s death in Shanghai, and Hertha’s immigration to the United States. Biographical materials include identification papers; birth, marriage, and vaccination certificates; emigration and immigration paperwork; and a death announcement documenting Hertha and Vera Wolff’s lives in Berlin, their travel to Shanghai and Vera’s death there, and Hertha’s immigration to the United States. This series also includes an American Joint Distribution Committee notification about Georg Wolff’s deportation to Trawniki. Photographic materials include a photograph album containing photographs of Vera Wolff from the age of seven months to fifteen years, some including her mother, two photographs of Shirley Temple, one photograph of Deanna Durbin, and a list of Vera’s childhood illnesses; loose photographs of Vera and Hertha from the album; and loose photographs of two groups of children, two unidentified men, Vera’s grave, and an unidentified woman with a girl. The collection also contains a single letter from Otto Singer to Hertha Wolff referencing a $200 check for an unspecified purpose as well as lyrics to Rudolf Nelson’s “Das Ladenmädel.”
A short video highlighting overseas interviews with witnesses, collaborators, and perpetrators created as part of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum's Oral History program. The 12 minute video combining excerpts of four interviews, three in Polish and one in Lithuanian with a convicted member of a killing squad, has had a wide and powerful impact. 1. Stefan Kucharek, Polish engine driver, shuttled deportation trains between the local railway station and the gate of Treblinka killing center, Poland 1943 2. Aleksandra Nizio and Wiktoria Salega, Polish sisters, as young girls witnessed German mass killing of Jews at Trawniki Camp, Poland, 1943 3. Juozas Aleksynas, Member of 12th Lithuanian Police Battalion employed in German mass shootings of Jews, Belarus 1941
Files of criminal investigation against German, Ukrainian and Polish policemen from the Lublin District: Hans Walter, Herbert Christensen, Heinrich Hass, Emil Jess, Karl Kothe, Franz Letzel, Werner Lippert, Michael Marczuk, Franz Pantil, Rudolf Pfau, Alois Repp, Paul Rau, August Reichert, Heinrich Reinwarth, Alfred Ritter, Wilhelm Schuttler, Jacobus von der Speck, Hans Siem, Anton Tyssen, Rudolf Seer, Kurt Zimmermann, Josef Rodz, Wilhelm Rotarmel, Joahnn Jurkiw, Willi Ortmann, Jurij Huzelo, Stefan Schmigel, Vincent Pawlowski, Waclaw Petrol, Jan Opacki, Bolesław Dobrzyński, Mieczysław Cyranka, Hugo Hauck. These policemen were accused of various crimes, such as desertion, arms and ammunition trade, loss of arms, unlawful use of weapons, disobedience, assault on superiors, lack of discipline, release of prisoners, theft, fencing, unauthorized contact with prisoners, and others. The defendants served in the following cities: Lublin, Zamość, Chełm, Janów Lubelski, Terespol, Trawniki, Biłgoraj, Nałęczów, and Stanin.
A history of the Bełżec death camp, based largely on testimonies of former perpetrators, residents of the village of Bełżec, Poles who were engaged there in construction work and transportation, and a few Jewish and Gypsy survivors. The first Nazi camps in this area were labor camps established in 1940 for the construction of a fortification line along the new German-Soviet border. Construction of the death camp began in late 1941. Discusses the structure and functioning of the camp, its staff, the Jewish work brigades, the transports to Bełżec, and the liquidation of the camp in 1943. Presents lists and short biographies of Jewish inmates, both those who survived and those who perished during the war; victims from Germany and other countries who perished there; and perpetrators, both Germans and Trawniki men, mostly Ukrainian. Pp. 207-260 contain photographs and documents. Includes bibliographical references and index. xviii, 292 pages : illustrations ; 21 cm
Edith Jacoby was born in Worms, Germany, ca. 1899. She married Kurt Jacoby in the 1920s. Instead of attempting to emigrate to the US, the Jacobys fled into Poland to avoid Nazi persecution. The two Jacoby children, Klaus and Irene, were sent by children's transport to live in England. Kurt Jacoby died shortly thereafter and Edit Jacoby was deported to the Warsaw Ghetto. She was later killed at Treblinka
The Leonore Gumpert correspondence consists of letters and postcards dated 1938-1942 to Leonore in America from her mother, Clara Joseph, in Kassel and Darmstadt and from her sister, Inge, in Kassel, Darmstadt, Brussels, Seyre, and Chateau de la Hille. Some correspondence from Germany includes messages from Leonore's aunt Martha and grandmother Josephine. There are also a few letters and postcards from Leonore's father, Julius, and from relatives in New York. Most of the letters and postcards describe daily life in Germany, Belgium, and France and relate efforts to immigrate. One October 1938 letter from Clara Joseph includes recipes. Some of the letters and postcards are accompanied by English translations provided by the donor.
Includes two postcards from the Ticho family, informing Albert Steiner of their deportation to Theresienstadt in 1942 with an accompanying letter from Kurt Thomas (born Kurt Ticho) explaining context of postcards.
Selected records of the Public Prosecutor at the District Court of Berlin relating to criminal cases concerning crimes against humanity, war crimes trials, and Nazi crimes against Jews, homosexuals, Sinti and Roma, the disabled, political prisoners, Jehovah’s witnesses, forced laborers, as well as documents regarding euthanasia facilities, ghettos, concentration camps and prisons. Includes interrogations, testimonies, judicial examinations of war criminals and witnesses; reports of the International Tracing Service Arolsen about concentration camps, documents on deportation of Berlin Jews to Riga, Reval, Kowno, Trawniki and Izbica; correspondence with the Attorney Dr. Robert M.W. Kempner and dr. Carl Brinitzer; the verdict of the District Court of Jerusalem against Adolf Eichmann; "Chronicle of Auschwitz" by Dr. Otto Wolkenand; and other supporting documents relating to matters of war crimes.
Based on recently-opened archives, analyzes the phases of annihilation of the Jews in the district of Lublin. The police, the Wehrmacht, and the civil administration cooperated with the SS in this project. Describes shooting of Jews, the establishment of ghettos, economic measures, forced labor, and deportation to Bełżec and Sobibór. Power in the district was in the hands of SS-and-police commander Odilo Globočnik, who carried out the policy of the SS commander of the General Government, Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger, and of Himmler, but he was largely independent in its execution. Globočnik also had under his command POWs trained in the camp he established at Trawniki, who were noted for their brutality. He and his team were called upon, on the basis of their experience in Lublin, to carry out the deportations from the Warsaw ghetto in the summer of 1942. Argues that by late 1942 all those involved in the deportations must have been aware of the fate awaiting the Jews. In November 1943, 42,000 Jews in Majdanek and forced labor camps were shot in "Operation Erntefest". Includes bibliographical references (pages 189-206) and index. 208 pages ; 21 cm
Printed inventory: Retribučné súdy a orgány obžaloby na Spiši 1945-1945, Author: Alžbeta Liščáková, 1970, available in the Researchers´ room of the archive.
Ruth Terner was born Ruth Cohn in 1923 in Berlin to Werner Cohn (1887-approximately 1942) and Frieda Deutschkron Cohn (1894-approximately 1942). Ruth left Germany in 1939 on a Kindertransport to England, where she met Charles Terner (1916-1998). Charles Terner was born Karl Terner in Lublin to Isidore (Israel) Terner and Fanny (Feiga) Schächter Terner. The family moved to Vienna when Charles was very young. Charles Terner studied medicine in Vienna before arriving in England via Switzerland. The couple married in Birmingham in 1945 and immigrated to the United States in 1955. Terner's parents survived the war in Switzerland, but his grandparents in Vienna, his aunt in Witten, and most other extended family members perished. Ruth's parents were transported to Trawniki in March 1942. Her uncle, aunt, and cousin Alfred, Rosette, and Gerda Cohn were transported to Auschwitz in February 1943 and did not survive. Her grandmother Olga Cohn was transported to Theresienstadt in July 1942 then to Treblinka two months later and did not survive. Ruth Terner was born Ruth Cohn in 1923 in Berlin to Werner Cohn (1887-approximately 1942) and Frieda Deutschkron Cohn (1894-approximately 1942). Ruth left Germany in 1939 on a Kindertransport to England, where she met Charles Terner (1916-1998). Charles Terner was born Karl Terner in Lublin to Isidore (Israel) Terner and Fanny (Feiga) Schächter Terner. The family moved to Vienna when Charles was very young. Charles Terner studied medicine in Vienna before arriving in England via Switzerland. The couple married in Birmingham in 1945 and immigrated to the United States in 1955. Terner's parents survived the war in Switzerland, but his grandparents in Vienna, his aunt in Witten, and most other extended family members perished. Ruth's parents were transported to Trawniki in March 1942. Her uncle, aunt, and cousin Alfred, Rosette, and Gerda Cohn were transported to Auschwitz in February 1943 and did not survive. Her grandmother Olga Cohn was transported to Theresienstadt in July 1942 then to Treblinka two months later and did not survive.
Copyright Holder: Yahad-In Unum
Copyright Holder: Yahad-In Unum